Short history

Sydney, the capital of New South Wales, Australia, was established in 1788 as a British penal colony. The city is seated on land with an Aboriginal heritage spanning at least 30,000 years, traditionally belonging to the Darug, Dharawal, and Eora peoples. Through the next two centuries, Sydney experienced significant growth, evolving from its penal colony origins to become Australia’s most populous city. The economy flourished with a focus on finance, manufacturing, and tourism.

In the 20th century, Sydney solidified its status on the global stage, notably with the construction of the Sydney Opera House, which was completed in 1973 and has since become a symbol of both the city and Australia. Additionally, the opening of the Sydney Harbour Bridge in 1932 significantly enhanced the city’s transportation network, linking the Sydney central business district with the North Shore.

Sydney’s historical narrative is underscored by its role in hosting the 2000 Summer Olympics, a moment that demonstrated its international importance. 


Sydney is located on the east coast of the country, surrounded by the Pacific Ocean to the east, the Blue Mountains to the west, the Hawkesbury River to the north, and the Royal National Park to the south. This position affords Sydney a diverse range of topographies, from sandy beaches to hills and mountains.

The city’s climate is classified as humid subtropical, leading to warm summers, mild winters, and rainfall spread throughout the year. Temperatures during the summer months (december to february) frequently reach the high 20s to mid-30s Celsius (mid-80s to mid-90s Fahrenheit). Winter months, conversely, see mild conditions with temperatures generally hovering around 10 to 15 degrees Celsius (50 to 59 degrees Fahrenheit), rarely dipping below freezing.

Urban layout is significantly influenced by its coastal location, with the central business district (CBD) positioned near Sydney Cove, the site of the first European settlement. Sydney’s urban area sprawls over 12,368 square kilometers, integrating modern architectural developments with historic sites. The city’s layout also includes extensive public parks and nature reserves.


Sydney, as Australia’s most populous city, has a population exceeding 5 million people. Nearly 40% of its residents of this multicultural metropolis are born overseas, illustrating Sydney’s role as a global city. The largest ethnic group in Sydney remains those of British and Irish descent. The cultural image also includes significant communities of Chinese, Indian, British, and Filipino descent, among others. This diversity is also reflected in languages spoken throughout the city, with English being the predominant language, followed by Mandarin, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese.

Religion in Sydney spans a broad spectrum, with Christianity being the largest religious group, followed by Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Judaism, exhibiting the city’s wide-ranging religious tolerance and multicultural coexistence. The influence of the Aboriginal heritage of the Darug, Dharawal, and Eora peoples is also an essential aspect of Sydney’s cultural identity.

Main sights

  • Sydney Opera House: UNESCO World Heritage Site known for its unique use of shell-like structures which house multiple performance venues. It’s a global symbol of architecture and the arts.
  • Sydney Harbour Bridge: Often referred to as “The Coathanger” because of its arch-based design, this bridge offers pedestrian access and breathtaking views of the harbor and Sydney Opera House.
  • Bondi Beach: One of the most famous beaches in the world, known for its golden sands, clear waters, and surfing culture.
  • Royal Botanic Garden Sydney: Spanning over 30 hectares, these gardens are include sprawling lawns and many plant species.
  • Darling Harbour: A dynamic waterfront area filled with shops, restaurants, museums, and entertainment venues.
  • The Rocks: A historic area located on the edge of Sydney Harbour, known for its colonial buildings and market scene.
  • Taronga Zoo Sydney: A conservation and education center housing over 4,000 animals from various parts of the world, with spectacular views of the harbor.


  • Barramundi: This native Australian fish, often grilled, is revered for its buttery flavor and is a staple in Sydney’s seafood restaurants.
  • Meat Pie: A classic Australian comfort food, Sydney’s take on the meat pie is filled with minced meat, gravy, and often topped with tomato sauce, served piping hot.
  • Chicken Parmigiana: Originally from Italy but adopted and adored in Sydney, this dish features a chicken schnitzel topped with tomato sauce and melted cheese, often accompanied by chips and salad.
  • Lamingtons: No list of Sydney’s food would be complete without this quintessential Australian dessert. A sponge cake coated in chocolate and rolled in desiccated coconut, sometimes filled with jam or cream.
  • Vegemite on Toast: A breakfast staple, this salty and savory spread made from yeast extract is both loved and loathed, but definitely a must-try Sydney experience.
  • Pavlova: Named after the Russian ballerina Anna Pavlova, this meringue dessert with a crisp crust and soft, light inside topped with fresh fruit and whipped cream is a celebratory dish in Sydney.

Fun facts

  • Sydney is not Australia’s capital city, despite being its most populous; the capital is actually Canberra.
  • The Sydney Opera House, a symbol of the city, was designed by Danish architect Jørn Utzon and officially opened in 1973. It features over 1 million tiles on its roofs.
  • The Sydney Harbour Bridge was the world’s widest long-span bridge at the time of its construction in 1932.
  • Sydney’s New Year’s Eve fireworks are some of the most famous in the world, with over 1 million people gathering around the harbor to watch the spectacular display.
  • The city’s Bondi Beach is one of the most visited sites in Australia and was added to the Australian National Heritage List in 2008.
  • The University of Sydney, established in 1850, is Australia’s oldest university and is regarded as one of the world’s leading universities, with several prime ministers among its alumni.