San Francisco

Short history

San Francisco is founded on June 29, 1776, by Spanish colonists. It was initially named after St. Francis of Assisi. The discovery of gold in 1849 catapulted San Francisco into a busy urban center during the California Gold Rush, attracting fortune-seekers and entrepreneurs from around the globe. This rapid population growth was a catalyst for economic and cultural expansion, setting the stage for San Francisco to emerge as a hub for commerce and finance in the West.

However, the city went through the devastating earthquake and subsequent fires of 1906, which razed much of San Francisco to the ground. The calamity resulted in significant loss of life and property, but it also ushered in a period of rebuilding and innovation, leading to the architectural renaissance that defined its famous skyline. Throughout the 20th century, San Francisco became synonymous with progressive thought and social movements, notably contributing to the civil rights, free speech, and LGBTQ+ rights movements. 


San Francisco is located in Northern California along the Pacific Ocean coastline. The city is renowned for its hilly terrain, which has become one of its signature characteristics. The San Francisco Bay defines its eastern border, providing a natural harbor that has played an important role in the city’s economic development. The city spans an area of about 46.89 square miles, making it relatively compact in terms of urban sprawl when compared to other major U.S. cities.

The climate in San Francisco is classified as Mediterranean, characterized by mild, wet winters and dry summers. This climate is heavily influenced by cool currents off the Pacific Ocean, contributing to the fog that often enshrouds the city, particularly in the summer months.

The city’s streets are laid out in a grid pattern in the more level areas, while winding roads navigate the steeper hills. Mix of natural beauty, climatic peculiarities, and urban design contributes to San Francisco’s unique charm and appeal.


The city has population exceeding 800,000 residents. This multicutural city is characterized by a mixture of ethnicities, with substantial representation from Asian (33.3%), White (41.9%), Hispanic or Latino (15.1%), and African American (5.2%) communities, according to the latest census data. English is official and common language, but the city’s streets echo with the sounds of Chinese, Spanish, Filipino, and other languages, reflecting the global backgrounds of its inhabitants.

The religious scene in San Francisco is equally pluralistic, accommodating a wide range of beliefs and practices. From Christianity and Judaism to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam.

San Francisco is widely celebrated for its emphasis on inclusivity and diversity, fostering a community where varied cultures, identities, and perspectives thrive. The city’s commitment to progressive social values and environmental sustainability further underscores its role as an epicenter of forward-thinking ideologies.

Main sights

  • Golden Gate Bridge: A symbol of San Francisco, this suspension bridge spans the Golden Gate, the one-mile-wide strait connecting San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean. It’s renowned for its orange color and art deco design.
  • Alcatraz Island: Once a federal prison housing notorious criminals, Alcatraz Island is now a national historic landmark. Visitors can take a ferry to explore the abandoned cells and learn about the island’s history through audio tours.
  • Fisherman’s Wharf: A neighborhood known for its historic waterfront, delicious seafood, and unique shopping experiences. Attractions include Pier 39, home to the famous sea lions, and the Ghirardelli Square.
  • Lombard Street: Often called the “crookedest” street in the world, this famous one-block section with eight hairpin turns is surrounded by beautiful Victorian mansions.
  • San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA): A leading contemporary art museum presenting an impressive collection of modern and contemporary art pieces in a strikingly designed building.
  • Chinatown: One of North America’s oldest and most established Chinatowns, this neighborhood is rich with history, markets, traditional restaurants, and cultural sights.


  • Sourdough Bread: A staple in San Francisco cuisine, this tangy bread dates back to the California Gold Rush, and is often served as a hearty bowl for clam chowder.
  • Dungeness Crab: Found in the chilly waters off the San Francisco Bay, Dungeness crab is a delicacy usually enjoyed fresh, cracked, and served with a side of melted butter.
  • Mission Burrito: Originating in the Mission District, this sizable burrito is packed with rice, beans, meat, cheese, and salsa, wrapped tightly in a large flour tortilla.
  • Cioppino: A seafood stew originating from San Francisco’s Italian-American community. It’s traditionally made with a mix of the day’s fresh catch, tomatoes, and wine.
  • Ghirardelli Chocolate: While not a dish, no culinary exploration of San Francisco is complete without tasting the creations of this historic chocolate company, founded in 1852.
  • Fortune Cookie: Invented in San Francisco, this sweet, crispy treat comes with a piece of paper inside with words of wisdom or a vague prophecy, a quirky end to many meals in the city.

Fun facts

  • San Francisco is home to the famous Alcatraz Island, which served as a federal prison from 1934 until 1963 and once housed notorious criminals like Al Capone.
  • The Golden Gate Bridge was once dubbed “the bridge that couldn’t be built.” Upon its completion in 1937, it was the longest suspension bridge in the world.
  • The city’s cable cars are the only National Historical Monument that can move. San Francisco introduced these cable cars in 1873, and they remain a popular mode of transport and tourist attraction today.
  • San Francisco is built on more than 50 hills, resulting in some streets with inclines as steep as 31 degrees.
  • The Fortune Cookie was reportedly invented in San Francisco. The Japanese Tea Garden in Golden Gate Park is said to be the birthplace of the now-famous cookie, contradicting the common belief that it originated in Asia.
  • Despite its foggy disposition, San Francisco has over 200 parks and beaches, making it one of the greenest cities in the United States.