Short history

Founded by Julius Caesar in 59 BCE as a settlement for his veteran soldiers, Florence was originally named Florentia and laid out in the Roman grid pattern. The city’s location on the Arno River fostered its growth into a trading center during the Roman Empire. However, it was during the Middle Ages that Florence began to truly flourish, emerging as a wealthy city-state. The city’s prosperity was bolstered by the banking sector, with the Medici family playing a crucial role in its economic and cultural development. The Renaissance, a period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, saw Florence at the heart of its innovations. Artists like Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo contributed to its legacy as a center of art and learning. Throughout the centuries, despite facing plagues, wars, and political turmoil, Florence has preserved its position as one of Italy’s most important cities.


Florence is positioned in the heart of Italy’s Tuscany region, along the banks of the Arno River.  The Tuscan Apennine Mountains to the north and the Chianti hills to the south provide a beautiful backdrop to Florence, enhancing its charm.

Florence is characterized by a subtropical Mediterranean climate, featuring hot, dry summers and cool, damp winters. This climate ensures that the city enjoys a generous amount of sunshine throughout the year, with July and August being particularly warm months where temperatures can soar above 30°C (86°F). Conversely, winter months like December and January present a cooler and more humid experience, with occasional rainfall and temperatures that rarely drop below freezing.

This climate contributes to the the region’s renowned vineyards and olive groves, further enriching the area’s natural appeal. 


In this city Italian serves as the predominant language. The residents of Florence, or Florentines as they are known, predominantly adhere to Roman Catholicism, which mirrors the broader religious picture of Italy. This alignment with Roman Catholicism is not just a demographic detail but also influences the city’s numerous festivals, architecture, and art, reflecting centuries of tradition and belief.

As of the latest estimates, Florence is home to approximately 382,000 individuals, with Italians forming the majority. However, the city’s demographic scene is gradually evolving, thanks to a growing number of immigrants from around the globe. 

Main sights

  • Florence Cathedral (Duomo di Firenze): Famous for its Renaissance dome designed by Filippo Brunelleschi, this cathedral is a symbol of the city.
  • Uffizi Gallery: Houses one of the most important collections of art in the world, including works by Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Botticelli.
  • Ponte Vecchio: An iconic medieval stone bridge over the Arno River.
  • Palazzo Vecchio: This town hall of Florence features courtyards, luxurious chambers, and impressive artworks.
  • Boboli Gardens: Behind the Pitti Palace, these gardens are a beautiful example of Italian Renaissance gardens, filled with sculptures, fountains, and an amphitheater.
  • Basilica of Santa Croce: The principal Franciscan church in Florence, known for its art and tombs of illustrious Italians like Michelangelo, Galileo, and Machiavelli.


Here are some typical dishes from Florence:

  • Bistecca alla Fiorentina: A large, thick cut of T-bone steak sourced from the local Chianina cattle, grilled over a wood or charcoal fire, and seasoned with salt, black pepper, and olive oil. This steak has a very tender texture and rich flavors.
  • Ribollita: A hearty soup is an example of cucina povera, or peasant cooking. Made with bread, cannellini beans, Lacinato kale, cabbage, and other vegetables, Ribollita is a comforting dish, especially during the colder months.
  • Pappa al Pomodoro: This thick, rustic soup combines ripe tomatoes, stale bread, garlic, basil, and a generous drizzle of extra virgin olive oil. It’s an example of how simple ingredients can create deeply flavorful dishes.
  • Cantucci con Vin Santo: A beloved Tuscan dessert, Cantucci are almond biscuits that are baked twice for a crunchy texture. They are traditionally dipped in Vin Santo, a sweet Tuscan dessert wine, making for a delightful end to a meal.

Fun facts

  • Florence is the birthplace of the Renaissance, a cultural movement that profoundly shaped European intellectual life. This city was home to legendary figures such as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Dante Alighieri.
  • The Florence Cathedral, or the Duomo, has the largest brick dome ever constructed, designed by Filippo Brunelleschi. This architectural marvel took approximately 140 years to complete.
  • Florence was one of the wealthiest cities in the medieval period, primarily due to its flourishing textile industry, which was a cornerstone of its economy. The Florin, its gold coin, became the preferred currency for international trade.
  • The Uffizi Gallery in Florence houses one of the most important and comprehensive collections of art in the world, including seminal works by Botticelli, Caravaggio, and Raphael.
  • Galileo Galilei, the father of modern observational astronomy, was born in Pisa but spent a significant part of his life in Florence. His contributions to science are celebrated in the city, with various sites named in his honor.